ADORNMENT
Cart 0
Cart 0
 
 
artificial_cotton_plant_spray.jpg

Conventional / Non-Organic Cotton

Is soft, has good absorbency, is strong and biodegradable.

Main Suppliers are China, India, United States

How you make it: 
The fiber is harvested, cleaned and separated from the plant seed by machines. Conventional cotton (with GMO fibres) stands for about 50 percent of the world’s fiber production and roughly 25 million tonnes are produced each year.

Environmental impact - Very high
Conventional cotton need fungicides, insecticides, herbicides and other scary pesticides and fertilizers to intense the production process. It take up three percent of the world’s arable land, which is highly damageable for biodiversity. Demand huge amounts of fresh water, i.e one cotton t-shirt demands nearly 20 000 litres.

 

 

 

How to wash it: Mashine 40 degrees

 


Organic cotton

Characteristics
Same as conventional cotton

Main Suppliers
Turkey, Syria, Tanzania, Brazil

Manufacturing
The crop is grown with natural compost instead of chemical pesticides and fertilizers. Weeds are removed with innovative machinery or hand labor. More time consuming, don’t deliver as much and demand more skill than conventional cotton.  

Environmental impact - Relatively low
Don’t completely reduce the need for water, but better than conventional cotton.  The absence of toxic chemicals make work considerably more safe for labourers.  The final organic fabric may be dyed using heavy metals and toxic substances. Look for products certified by the Global Organic Textile Standard (GOTS), which requires the use of certified organic cotton manufactured according to low-impact processes.

b65fbea148614e91cd2df18a0374bd85.jpg

linen.jpg

linen & hemp

Characteristics
Same as conventional cotton

Main Suppliers
Turkey, Syria, Tanzania, Brazil

Manufacturing
The crop is grown with natural compost instead of chemical pesticides and fertilizers. Weeds are removed with innovative machinery or hand labor. More time consuming, don’t deliver as much and demand more skill than conventional cotton.  

Environmental impact - Relatively low
Don’t completely reduce the need for water, but better than conventional cotton.  The absence of toxic chemicals make work considerably more safe for labourers.  The final organic fabric may be dyed using heavy metals and toxic substances. Look for products certified by the Global Organic Textile Standard (GOTS), which requires the use of certified organic cotton manufactured according to low-impact processes.


silk

Characteristics
Strongest natural fiber, high elasticity, drapes beautifully, feels light and breathes, good absorbency, non-conductor of heat similar to wool, not machine-washable, normal shrinkage, recyclable.

Main Supplier
China & India

Manufactured
Protein/ or animal fiber made by the silkworm. The worm feeds on mulberry leaves until it spins a cocoon of silk threads around itself. The cocoons are then boiled, which makes it possible for machines to unravel the silk threads. Since the process is time-consuming as well as complex, the silk fabric tends to be more expensive than other textiles. About 0,15 percent of the world’s fiber production consist of silk.

Environmental impact -  Relatively low
Since the production process creates less waste than any other textile, need minimal chemicals and is recyclable, the textile is regarded as one of the most sustainable materials in the fashion industry. However, the production process is unpleasant since it kills the wild worms alive. Peace Silk however is made from the cocoons of semi-wild and wild worms in India that have emerged from their cocoons naturally. Wild-crafted silk also helps maintain the forest habitat of worm by linking the livelihood of tribal spinners and weavers to the existence of these trees.

 

silk.png

ull.jpeg

Wool

Characteristics
Strong and durable, good absorbency, naturally fireproof, non-conductor of heat similar to silk, naturally elastic causing rapid wrinkle recovery, preferably not machine-washable, relatively recyclable. Variants such as lambswool, cashmere, mohair, alpaca etc.

Main suppliers
Australia, New Zealand, China, Argentina, Russia

Manufactured
Protein fibers that comes from sheeps, goats, llamas etcetera. Stands for circa 3% of the world’s fiber production

Environmental impact
Conventional wool = High, Organic wool = low
The general production of conventional wool compared to a conventional cotton knit use 228 percent worse chemistry, 249 percent more energy and 8 percent more water. However, it is not nearly as resource-intensive as cotton. On the plus side,  wool last long and requires less washing compared to other textiles.  Organic wool producers use no chemical pesticides or insecticides on their sheep, and follow the same standards set for USDA organic meat, dairy and other animal-fiber products.

 
 
wildtextures-old-wood-original-file.jpg

viscose

Characteristics
Soft, breathes, dyed and printed extremely well,  silk-like brightness, good absorbency, reduce static electricity, shrink, machine-washable.

Main Suppliers
China, Western Europe, India, Indonesia

Manufactured
Shredded pieces of bamboo or another plant gets soaked in chemicals to make a pulp mass. The pulp is then forced through a machine similar to forcing spaghetti through a nozzle. The chemicals harden the cellulose fibers so it can be spun into the yarns that we later use for our clothes

Environmental impact - High
The production of viscose is slowly declining because of the heavy use of chemical in the  manufacturing process and in the dyeing-mill after. The disturbing deforestation of ancient and endangered forests have put an extra pressure on the largest manufacturing companies, forcing them to take action.

 

 

 


lyocell / tencell

Characteristics
Strong, soft, breathes, drapes beautifully,  silk-like brightness, good absorbency, shrink-resistant, preferably not machine-washable, hang to dry.

Main Suppliers
South Africa,  Europe, North America

Manufactured
Made from cellulose in wood pulp, i.e eucalyptus, which is harvested from tree-farm trees and then manufactured in an advanced “closed loop” solvent spinning process.  

Environmental impact - Low.  
This type of fiber is considered to be one of the most sustainable materials because of the manufacturing process that demands minimal energy, water and chemicals. The solvent used in the process is toxic but 99 percent is recovered and continually recycled. Production plant emissions are significantly lower in comparison to many other man-made fiber operations.

 

fiber_lyocell.jpg

 
 
 Jane Biirkin, 1969, Picture Data photoshoot

Jane Biirkin, 1969, Picture Data photoshoot

polyester, elastane, acrylic, polypropylene, polyurethane, faux leather

Characteristics
Can adapt different desirable qualities because of it's modified and manufactured origin. Strong, shrink-resistant, low absorbency, machine-washable, easily available, cheap, no wrinkles, does not breath and can have a feel of wearing plastic.

Main Suppliers
China, India

Manufactured
Are made from chemically produced fibers, which are derived from coal, oil, or natural gas. Near 50 percent of all fiber production in the world is made in this type of fiber.

Environmental impact
Polyester and other synthetics rely on nonrenewable resources (oil) for fiber production, which have harmful effects on the environment, wildlife and people's health. On the plus side, synthetic fibers are easier on the environment compared to conventional cotton and wool when it comes to water and chemistry demand.

 

Sources and further read
NRDC, WWF, GLOBAL ORGANIC TEXTILE STANDARD (GOTS), CLEAN BY DESIGN, NIKE’S sustainability app “MAKING”